STOP 0xd1 Bugcheck

Bugcheck 0xd1, also known as DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL bug check or stop code 0xd1, has a value of 0x000000D1, It is also known as STOP 0x000000D1 or 0x000000D1 BSOD (blue screen error). The error means that the system had to shut down abruptly to protect itself from data loss and damage. If you know how the memory manager and thread scheduling in Windows work, read the explanation given on this page.

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Generally, error 0xd1 points to a problem with a kernel-mode driver accessing improper addresses. In techie terms, STOP 0xd1 means that a kernel-mode driver tired to access pageable or completely invalid memory address at IRQL that was too high. Processes running at lower IRQL cannot preempt those running at higher IRQL. The memory manager runs at IRQL 0. When a driver running at a higher IRQL 0 (say, 2) attempts to access non-paged in (non-RAM) memory, will catch this exception and to page-in the memory. If the drivers IRQL is higher than that of memory manager, the latter is unable to handle it because lower IRQL does not allow it to preempt. As the manager knows that this is unrecoverable error, it has to bugcheck the system and you get a blue screen with 0xd1 message. That’s what the name of the 0xd1 bugcheck (driver_irql_not_less_or_equal) means.

Such behavior can be caused not just by the driver but also by a hardware device or related software, in Windows 7, Windows XP and Vista. You can read about specific cases of 0xd1 bugcheck here.

What can I learn from 0xd1 error message?

As any STOP error code, 0x000000D1 code is followed by 4 parameters is parenthesis which mean the following:

  • 1 param: memory referenced
  • 2 param: IRQL at time of reference
  • 3 param: type of the operation attempted (0 - Read, 1 - Write, 8 - Execute)
  • 4 param: Address that referenced memory

What Causes 0xd1

As a rule, stop 0xd1 occurs because _ driver attempted to execute code when the code itself was paged out _. This is most likely to be the cause if the third parameter is pointing to an execute operation and the first and the forth parameters have the same value.

If the pagefault was caused by a driver you are developing check for the following issues:

  • The function running at an elevated IRQL was marked as pageable
  • Invalid function pointer is used to make function call
  • The function call was made to a function in another, unloaded driver
  • The function calls any other inline function that was paged out.